Journal of Military History
Vol. 85, No. 1
January 2021


“Should Roman Soldiers be Called ‘Professional’ Prior to Augustus?” by Tony McArthur, Journal of Military History 85:1 (January 2021): 9–26
Modern scholarship uses the language of professionalism when referring to the armies of the Romans. The armies and their soldiers are seen to have become more professional from the mid-second century BCE. This paradigmatic view of Roman history invites the question as to whether “professionalism” is the appropriate language to apply to Rome's armies from 200 BCE to the battle of Actium in 31 BCE. The paper confines itself to the period 200 to 31 BCE but raises questions that can reasonably be asked of the use of the terms to describe Roman armies in the imperial period.
“Bastion of Empire: The Italian terzo vecchio of the Army of Flanders (1597–1682),” by Maurizio Arfaioli, Journal of Military History 85:1 (January 2021): 27–50
In recent years, the growing corpus of modern scholarship on the history of Spanish Italy has challenged and often overturned most of the profoundly biased narratives from nineteenth-century Italian historiography. Still, the memory of the massive Italian military involvement in the conflicts that shaped the history of the Spanish Low Countries hinges upon that of the two iconic Italian generals of the Army of Flanders: Alessandro Farnese and Ambrogio Spinola. In addressing this issue, this article offers an overview of the history of the Italian natione of the Army of Flanders based on the complex trajectory followed by its longest-lived infantry unit, its terzo vecchio.
“‘Neither an Officer nor an Enlisted Man’: Contract Surgeons’ Eligibility for the Medal of Honor,” by Dwight S. Mears, Journal of Military History 85:1 (January 2021): 51–75
U.S. Army contract surgeons in the nineteenth century were in many ways indistinguishable from their commissioned counterparts; however, as civilians they were treated quite differently when it came to some legal entitlements, which included eligibility for the sole military decoration of the period, the Medal of Honor. This article compares the experiences of four different contract surgeons who claimed entitlement to the Medal of Honor and the varying outcomes. These case studies offer a window into the various power structures of the time, demonstrating that some military awards were influenced by gender, influence, timeliness, and merit relative to other potential recipients.
The 1932 Battle of Shanghai was the first instance of a modern war waged in a large city. This paper examines how the conflict unfolded from one urban district—Zhabei—to a large area north of the city, all the way to Wusong, from a densely populated and built-up urban area to the countryside; and how the conflict’s nature and the balance of power shifted drastically. The Japanese army was not prepared to wage a war that, in its first phase, amounted to an urban guerrilla campaign by the Chinese, while the displacement into rural areas played to the advantage of the Chinese troops. This paper looks at the crucial role spatial factors played in the successes and failures of the contending armies.
“Harvey A. DeWeerd and the Dawn of Academic Military History in the United States,” by Timothy S. Wolters, Journal of Military History 85:1 (January 2021): 95–133
Harvey Arthur DeWeerd (1902–79) was an important member of the earliest generation of academic military historians in the United States. He was the first professional scholar to edit what is now the Journal of Military History, taught some of the first dedicated military history courses in the country, and was the second military historian hired by RAND. DeWeerd also contributed to the birth of security studies and served as an editor of the Infantry Journal during World War II.
“Debunking an Omaha Beach Legend: The Use of ‘Armored Funnies’ on D-Day,” by Steven J. Zaloga, Journal of Military History 85:1 (January 2021): 134–62
Why were casualties on Omaha Beach on D-Day so high? Many accounts assert that the unusually high casualties suffered can be traced to the U.S. Army’s refusal to employ specialized tanks developed by the British army, nicknamed “Armored Funnies.” This article examines the roots of this legend and details American and British plans for employing specialized tank support for Operation Neptune in June 1944. It concludes that the U.S. Army did not refuse to employ the Armored Funnies, but that delivery of some of these specialized tanks did not occur in time due to British shortages. This episode highlights the difficulty of attempting to harmonize military equipment and tactics in time-constrained joint operations.
“Warriors Who Don’t Fight: The Post–Cold War United States Army and Debates over Peacekeeping Operations,” by David Fitzgerald, Journal of Military History 85:1 (January 2021): 163–90
This article examines post-Cold War debates over the U.S. Army’s participation in peacekeeping operations. Peacekeeping meant different things to policy-makers, army leaders, public intellectuals, and those who served on such missions. Army leaders were generally not enthusiastic about these operations but recognized they were indicative of future trends. Peacekeepers accepted the role, even if they struggled to understand how to navigate the gray zone between peace and war; political commentators sought to use peacekeeping missions to advance their own causes. Participants in these debates articulated not only their thoughts on peacekeeping, but radically different visions of what they wanted the American soldier of the 21st century to be.
Book Reviews:
On Obedience: Contrasting Philosophies for the Military, Citizenry, and Community, by Pauline Shanks Kaurin, reviewed by Kevin S. Bemel and by Samuel Watson, 191–94

Carthage’s Other Wars: Carthaginian Warfare Outside the “Punic Wars” against Rome, by Dexter Hoyos, reviewed by Seth Kendall, 194–95

Greek Military Service in the Ancient Near East, 401–330 BCE, by Jeffrey Rop, reviewed by Lee L. Brice, 196–97

Medieval Fortifications in Cilicia: The Armenian Contribution to Military Architecture in the Middle Ages, by Dweezil Vanderkerckhove, reviewed by Tiffany Earley-Spadoni, 197–99

Roger of Lauria (c. 1250–1305): “Admiral of Admirals,” by Charles Stanton, reviewed by Matthew King, 199–201

The Black Prince and the Grande Chevauchée of 1355, by Mollie M. Madden, reviewed by Samuel Lane, 201–3

Military Strategy: A Global History, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by Donald B. Connelly, 203–4

Parliament’s Generals: Supreme Command & Politics during the British Wars, 1642–51, by Malcolm Wanklyn, reviewed by Oleksandr Turchyn, 205–6

The White Lotus War: Rebellion and Suppression in Late Imperial China, by Yingcong Dai, reviewed by Ulrich Theobald, 206–7

The Battle of Negro Fort: The Rise and Fall of a Slave Community, by Matthew J. Clavin, reviewed by Elizabeth J. Wood, 208–9

Island on Fire: The Revolt that Ended Slavery in the British Empire, by Tom Zoellner, reviewed by Devin Leigh, 209–10

Red Coats and Wild Birds: How Military Ornithologists and Migrant Birds Shaped Empire, by Kirsten A. Greer, reviewed by Kenneth E. Hendrickson, 211–12

Gunboats, Muskets, and Torpedoes: Coastal North Carolina, 1861–1865, by Michael G. Laramie, reviewed by Thomas Blake Earle, 212–14

The Second Colorado Cavalry: A Civil War Regiment on the Great Plains, by Christopher M. Rein, reviewed by G. David Schieffler, 214–15

A Republic in the Ranks: Loyalty and Dissent in the Army of the Potomac, by Zachery A. Fry, reviewed by Alexandre F. Caillot, 216–17

Death at the Edges of Empire: Fallen Soldiers, Cultural Memory, and the Making of an American Nation, 1863–1921, by Shannon Bontrager, reviewed by Nathan K. Finney, 217–19

Duty Beyond The Battlefield: African American Soldiers Fight for Racial Uplift, Citizenship, and Manhood, 1870–1920, by Le’Trice Donaldson, reviewed by Hilary Green, 219–20

January Moon: The Cheyenne Breakout from Fort Robinson, 1878–1879, by Jerome A. Greene, reviewed by Brad D. Lookingbill, 221–22

Watching over Yellowstone: The U.S. Army’s Experience in America’s First National Park, 1886–1918, by Thomas C. Rust, reviewed by Jennifer M. Murray, 222–24

Contagions of Empire: Scientific Racism, Sexuality, and Black Military Workers Abroad, 1898–1948, by Khary Oronde Polk, reviewed by Allison L. Bennett, 224–26

The U.S. Volunteers in the Southern Philippines: Counterinsurgency, Pacification, and Collaboration, 1899–1901, by John Scott Reed, reviewed by Nathan Grau, 226–27

Defense Engagement since 1900: Global Lessons in Soft Power, edited by Greg Kennedy, reviewed by William A. Taylor, 228–29

Conscript Nation: Coercion and Citizenship in the Bolivian Barracks, by Elizabeth Shesko, reviewed by Natalia Sobrevilla Perea, 229–31

Wings for the Rising Sun: A Transnational History of Japanese Aviation, by Jürgen P. Melzer, reviewed by Jonathan Andrew Lear, 231–32

Rumors of the Great War: The British Press and Anglo-German Relations during the July Crisis, by Nathan N. Orgill, reviewed by Justin Quinn Olmstead, 233–34

Children at War 1914–1918: “It’s My War Too!” by Vivien Newman, reviewed by Hannah E. Palsa, 234–35

Decisive Victory: The Battle of the Sambre, 4 November 1918, by Derek Clayton, reviewed by Samuel Watson, 236–37

Censorship and Propaganda in World War I: A Comprehensive History, by Eberhard Demm, reviewed by Troy R E Paddock, 237–39

Sons of Freedom: The Forgotten American Soldiers Who Defeated Germany in World War I, by Geoffrey Wawro, reviewed by Lance Janda, 239–40

The Other Wars: The Experience and Memory of the First World War in the Middle East and Macedonia, by Justin Fantauzzo; and The Ottoman Twilight in the Arab Lands: Turkish Memoirs and Testimonies of the Great War, by Selim Deringil, reviewed by Sean McMeekin, 241–43

Women and the French Army during the World Wars, 1914–1940, by Andrew Orr, reviewed by Hayley Noble, 243–45

The World at War, 1914–1945, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by Ralph M. Hitchens, 245–47

War and Public Memory: Case Studies in Twentieth-Century Europe, by David A. Messenger, reviewed by Ashley Valanzola, 247–49

Marshal Malinovskii: Hero of the Soviet Union, Architect of the Modern Soviet Army, by Boris Sokolov, reviewed by Michael Rouland, 249–50

“Vincere!” The Italian Royal Army’s Counterinsurgency Operations in Africa, 1922–1940, by Federica Saini Fasanotti, reviewed by Vanda Wilcox, 251–52

Statecraft by Stealth: Secret Intelligence and British Rule in Palestine, by Steven B. Wagner; and Britain’s Pacification of Palestine: The British Army, the Colonial State, and the Arab Revolt, 1936–1939, by Matthew Hughes, reviewed by Hilary Falb Kalisman, 252–55

Sudden Courage: Youth in France Confront the Germans, 1940–1945, by Ronald C. Rosbottom, reviewed by Keith Rathbone, 255–57

Patton: Battling with History, by J. Furman Daniel III, reviewed by D. K. R . Crosswell, 258–59

Comrades: The Wehrmacht from Within, by Felix Römer, reviewed by Michael Geheran, 259–61

Uniquely Okinawan: Determining Identity during the U.S. Wartime Occupation, by Courtney A. Short, reviewed by Fumi Inoue, 261–63

Bomber Boys on Screen: RAF Bomber Command in Film and Television Drama, by S. P. MacKenzie, reviewed by Jayson A. Altieri, 263–64

Disputed Decisions of World War II: Decision Science and Game Theory Perspectives, by Mark Thompson, reviewed by Ralph M. Hitchens, 264–66

George C. Marshall and the Early Cold War: Policy, Politics, and Society, edited by William A. Taylor, reviewed by Zachary Matusheski, 266–68

The U.S. Navy and Its Cold War Alliances, 1945–1953, by Corbin Williamson, reviewed by John T. Kuehn, 268–70

Politics of Forgetting: New Zealand, Greece, and Britain at War, by Martyn Brown, reviewed by Bryan McClure, 270–71

The Macedonian Slavs in the Greek Civil War, 1944–1949, by James Horncastle, reviewed by Milorad Lazic, 272–73

The Greek Civil War: Strategy, Counterinsurgency, and the Monarchy, by Spyridon Plakoudas, reviewed by Christina Goulter, 274–75

Britain and the Bomb: Technology, Culture, and the Cold War, by W. J. Nutall, reviewed by Melvin G. Deaile, 275–77

Building Ho’s Army: Chinese Military Assistance to North Vietnam, by Xiaobing Li, reviewed by Christopher Tang, 277–78

The Dragon in the Jungle: The Chinese Army in the Vietnam War, by Xiaobing Li, reviewed by Qiang Zhai, 279–80

Vietnamization: Politics, Strategy, Legacy, by David L. Anderson, reviewed by Christos G. Frentzos, 280–82

Bloody Sixteen: The USS Oriskany and Air Wing 16 during the Vietnam War, by Peter Fey, reviewed by Luke Holloway, 282–83

Blood in the Water: How the US and Israel Conspired to Ambush the USS Liberty, by Joan Mellen, reviewed by Jennifer L. Speelman, 283–85

Vietnam’s Strategic Thinking during the Third Indochina War, by Kosal Path, reviewed by Thuy Nguyen, 285–86

Across an Angry Sea: The SAS in the Falklands War, by Cedric Delves, reviewed by Timothy Heck, 286–88

Abuses of the Erotic: Militarizing Sexuality in the Post–Cold War United States, by Josh Cerretti, reviewed by Ryan Wadle, 288–89

Before Intelligence Failed: British Secret Intelligence on Chemical and Biological Weapons in the Soviet Union, South Africa and Libya, by Mark Wilkinson, reviewed by Philip C. Shackelford, 289–91

Lessons Unlearned: The U.S. Army’s Role in Creating the Forever Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, by Pat Proctor, reviewed by Cory Hollon, 291–92

The Second World War in the Twenty-first Century Museum: From Narrative, Memory, and Experience to Experientiality, by Stephan Jaeger, reviewed by Nina Janz, 293–94


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