Journal of Military History
Vol. 78, No. 1
January 2014

Articles

David S. Bachrach, “Restructuring the Eastern Frontier: Henry I of Germany, 924–936,” The Journal of Military History, 78:1 (January 2014): 9-35.
The military achievements of Otto I of Germany (r. 936–973) tend to overshadow those of his father Henry I (r. 919–936). It was the first king of the Saxon dynasty, however, who established the foundations of the German Empire. One important development was the creation of a defense-in-depth against Hungarian raiders between the Saale and Elbe rivers. From the mid-920s through the mid-930s, Henry I secured this region through the construction of dozens of fortifications with garrisons able to interdict hostile forces. This study traces the steps by which Henry achieved his military aims, and discusses how the study of military affairs illuminates the administration of the Ottonian kingdom.
Brian N. Hall, “Technological Adaptation in a Global Conflict: The British Army and Communications beyond the Western Front, 1914–1918,” The Journal of Military History, 78:1 (January 2014): 37-71.
This article seeks to contribute to recent scholarly analysis of the British Army’s military performance and its leadership’s willingness and ability to adapt during the First World War (1914–1918) by examining a maligned, though vital, aspect of its command and control system, communications. It offers a comparative assessment of the development and contribution of communications to British operations beyond the Western Front and concludes that the army was, on the whole, remarkably successful at adapting its communications system to suit the demands of fighting a modern, global conflict.
Alan McPherson, “Lid Sitters and Prestige Seekers: The U.S. Navy versus the State Department and the End of U.S. Occupations,” The Journal of Military History, 78:1 (January 2014): 73-99.
This article argues that U.S. occupations in the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti in the first third of the twentieth century lasted as long as they did for political reasons. U.S. military commanders disagreed with civilians in the State Department partly because of a lack of both policy guidance and interdepartmental coordination. In addition, State grew more sensitive than Navy to negative public opinion both foreign and domestic and to national political strategy. Marines, meanwhile, were more driven to reform the societies they occupied but also less sensitive to their own abuses, to changing norms, and to geopolitical reasons for ending occupations.
Jeffery A. Gunsburg, “La Grande Illusion: Belgian and Dutch Strategy Facing Germany, 1919–May 1940 (Part I),” The Journal of Military History, 78:1 (January 2014): 101-58.
Following the defeat of Germany in 1918, the dissolution of the Allied coalition and the gradual liberation of Germany from restrictions on its armed might, placed the neighboring Benelux countries before the dilemma of how to defend themselves against resurgent German aggression. The Netherlands and Luxemburg chose to rely on neutrality; Belgium at first flirted with the idea of joint defense with France, but from 1936, influenced among other things by the growing mechanization of warfare, embraced la grande illusion: that it could deter its neighbors from using its territory in case of a new war. Pursuance of this illusion until Germany actually attacked, together with the failure of the Netherlands and Belgium to create a joint defense, played a decisive role in the catastrophic Allied defeat of May 1940.
Sarah K. Douglas, “The Search for Hitler: Hugh Trevor-Roper, Humphrey Searle, and the Last Days of Adolf Hitler,” featuring a prologue by Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History, 78:1 (January 2014): 159-210.
In September 1945, British intelligence officer Hugh Trevor-Roper was asked to investigate the circumstances surrounding the death of Adolf Hitler. Two years later, he published his conclusions in The Last Days of Hitler, still recognized as the standard work. But, despite some delving into the subject in a recent biography of the author by Adam Sisman, it has remained unclear until now how Trevor-Roper managed to so rapidly gather the evidence on which his book is based. The account below, rooted in heretofore unseen or underused archival sources, highlights the crucial but unacknowledged support Trevor-Roper received from Allied intelligence services and from a timeline drafted by intelligence officer Captain Humphrey Searle, later a well-known composer, that combined all of the data assembled into a single record of events of the last days in the Führerbunker.
Hal M. Friedman, “Blue versus Orange: The United States Naval War College, Japan, and the Old Enemy in the Pacific, 1945–1946,” The Journal of Military History, 78:1 (January 2014): 211-31.
In the fall of 1945, the United States Naval War College (NWC) began its transition from a reduced wartime status to a peacetime stance as the Navy's premier postgraduate school. Because the war ended so quickly, the NWC was not able to change its curriculum for 1945-1946, which had been planned the previous academic year. It is therefore not surprising to find that the primary supposed enemy for Blue (the United States) in the coming academic year was still Orange (Japan). This study looks at the Operations Problems simulated at the immediate end of the war and explores the mix of interwar and wartime doctrine that was employed to prepare for the early Cold War.
Kevin M. Boylan, “Goodnight Saigon: American Provincial Advisors’ Final Impressions of the Vietnam War,” The Journal of Military History, 78:1 (January 2014): 233-70.
This article tests the veracity of the Revisionist thesis that the United States effectively won the Vietnam War in the years after Tet 1968. Since quantitative indicators could not accurately measure who was winning the “War in the Villages,” it relies instead upon qualitative assessments made by U.S. Province Senior Advisors—the Americans best qualified to make such judgments. It is organized into three sections dealing with the key Revisionist claims that the Vietcong insurgency was defeated, the Saigon regime gained control of practically the entire rural population, and the South Vietnamese armed forces became capable of standing on their own.
Jon Sumida, “A Concordance of Selected Subjects in Carl von Clausewitz’s On War,” The Journal of Military History, 78:1 (January 2014): 271-331.
This concordance of the standard English translation of Carl von Clausewitz’s On War by Michael Howard and Peter Paret breaks new ground in two important respects. First, it indexes the text in unprecedented detail by listing references to every significant proposition and distinctive phrase under major subject headings. Second, information about the location of indexed items includes the book and chapter of On War, and page numbers in both current editions of the standard translation.
Research Note:

Wayne E. Lee, “Military History in a Global Frame,” The Journal of Military History, 78:1 (January 2014): 333-36.

Reviews:
Napalm: An American Biography, by Robert M. Neer, reviewed by Martijn Lak and by Daniel Weimer, 337-39

Losing Vietnam: How America Abandoned Southeast Asia, by Ira A. Hunt, Jr., reviewed by Jay Veith and by James H. Willbanks, 340-42

War and Technology, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by Daniel R. Headrick, 343-44

Policing the Roman Empire: Soldiers, Administration and Public Order, by Christopher J. Fuhrmann, reviewed by Rose Mary Sheldon, 344-45

Charlemagne’s Early Campaigns (768-777): A Diplomatic and Military Analysis, by Bernard S. Bachrach, reviewed by Roger Collins, 346-47

John of Salisbury: Military Authority of the Twelfth-Century Renaissance, by John D. Hosler, reviewed by Michael Prestwich, 347-48

Chivalry, Kingship and Crusade: The English Experience in the Fourteenth Century, by Timothy Guard, reviewed by John D. Hosler, 348-50

The Hundred Years War (Part I): A Wider Focus; The Hundred Years War (Part II): Different Vistas; The Hundred Years War (Part III): Further Considerations, edited by L. J.Villalon and Donald J. Kagay, reviewed by Paul Solon, 350-52

Fatal Rivalry, Flodden 1513: Henry VIII, James IV and the Battle for Renaissance Britain, by George Goodwin, reviewed by Gervase Phillips, 352-53

The Battle of Kinsale: Study and Documents from the Spanish Archives, edited by Enrique Garc╬»a Hernán, reviewed by Hiram Morgan, 353-55

Touching America’s History: From the Pequot War through World War II, by Meredith Mason Brown, reviewed by David M. Corlett, 356-57

Family, Culture and Society in the Diary of Constantijn Huygens Jr, Secretary to Stadholder-King William of Orange, by Rudolf Dekker, reviewed by Geoffrey Parker, 357-58

Lords of the Sea: A History of the Barbary Corsairs, by Alan G. Jamieson, reviewed by Nabil Matar, 358-60

George Washington: Gentleman Warrior, by Stephen Brumwell, reviewed by Holly A. Mayer, 360-61

Special Operations during the American Revolution, by Robert L. Tonsetic, reviewed by Kevin S. Gould, 362-63

Blood of Tyrants: George Washington and the Forging of the Presidency, by Logan Beirne, reviewed by Mark V. Kwasny, 363-65

Meriwether Lewis, by Thomas C. Danisi and John C. Jackson, reviewed by Jay H. Buckley, 365-66

Sickness, Suffering, and the Sword: The British Regiment on Campaign, 1808-1815, by Andrew Bamford, reviewed by Edward J. Coss, 366-67

Outpost of Empire: The Napoleonic Occupation of Andalucia, 1810-1812, by Charles J. Esdaile, reviewed by Thomas M. Barker, 367-68

Through the Perilous Fight: Six Weeks That Saved the Nation, by Steve Vogel, reviewed by Donald E. Graves, 369-70

Humanitarian Intervention: A History, edited by Brendan Simms and D. J. B. Trim, reviewed by Jana Lipman, 370-71

Dragoons in Apacheland: Conquest and Resistance in Southern New Mexico, 1846-1861, by William S. Kiser, reviewed by Jerry Thompson, 371-73

We Have the War Upon Us: The Onset of the Civil War, November 1860-April 1861, by William J. Cooper, reviewed by John H. Matsui, 373-74

Lincoln’s Citadel: The Civil War in Washington, D.C., by Kenneth J. Winkle, reviewed by Candice Shy Hooper, 374-76

Remembering the Civil War: Reunion and the Limits of Reconciliation, by Caroline E. Janney, reviewed by John R. Neff, 376-77

The Young Atatürk: From Ottoman Soldier to Statesman of Turkey, by George W. Gawrych, reviewed by Edward J. Erickson, 377-79

21st Century Mahan: Sound Military Conclusions for the Modern Era, edited by Benjamin F. Armstrong, reviewed by John A. Adams, 379-80

Carved from Granite: West Point since 1902, by Lance Betros, reviewed by Ethan S. Rafuse, 380-82

Airship: Design, Development and Disaster, by John Swinfield, reviewed by Michael Paris, 382-83

Defending Neutrality: The Netherlands Prepares for War, 1900-1925, by Wim Klinkert; and Guarded Neutrality: Diplomacy and Internment in the Netherlands during the First World War, by Susanne Wolf, reviewed by Hubert P. van Tuyll, 383-85

Minotaur: French Military Justice and the Aernoult-Rousset Affair, by John Cerrullo, reviewed by Fred L. Borch III, 385-88

To the Fourth Shore: Italy’s War for Libya (1911-1912) / Verso la Quarta Sponda: la Guerra italiana per la Libia (1911-1912), by Bruce Vandervort, reviewed by John Gooch, 388-89

Nels Anderson’s World War I Diary, edited by Allen Kent Powell, reviewed by Steven Trout, 389-91

At War in Distant Waters: British Colonial Defence in the Great War, by Phillip G. Pattee, reviewed by David French, 391-92

Air and Sea Power in World War I: Combat Experience in the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Navy, by Maryam Philpott, reviewed by Robert Morley, 392-93

Verdun: The Lost History of the Most Important Battle of World War I, 1914-1918, by John Mosier, reviewed by Robert A. Doughty, 393-94

Petites patries dans la Grande Guerre, edited by Michaël Bourlet, Yann Lagadec, and Erwan Le Gall, reviewed by Elizabeth Greenhalgh, 394-96

The Soldiers’ Press: Trench Journals in the First World War, by Graham Seal, reviewed by Robert L. Nelson, 396-97

Living on the Western Front: Annals and Stories 1914-1919, by Chris Ward, reviewed by Christopher Schultz, 397-98

When the United States Invaded Russia: Woodrow Wilson’s Siberian Disaster, by Carl J. Richard, reviewed by Norman E. Saul, 399-400

Food and War in Mid-Twentieth-Century East Asia, edited by Katarzyna J. Cwiertka, reviewed by Stewart Lone, 400-1

Atrocity, Deviance, and Submarine Warfare: Norms and Practices during the World Wars, by Nachman Ben-Yehuda, reviewed by Joel I. Holwitt, 401-2

Seizing the Enigma: The Race to Break German U-boat Codes 1939-1943, by David Kahn, reviewed by Alan P. Capps, 402-4

A Call to Arms: Mobilizing America for World War II, by Maury Klein, reviewed by Terrence J. Gough, 404-5

Britain’s War Machine: Weapons, Resources, and Experts in the Second World War, by David Edgerton, reviewed by Ralph M. Hitchens, 405-7

The Hundred Day Winter War: Finland’s Gallant Stand against the Soviet Army, by Gordon F. Sander, reviewed by Jim Collins, 407-8

Victory in Defeat: The Wake Island Defenders in Captivity, 1941-1945, by Gregory J. W. Urwin, reviewed by Stanley L. Falk, 408-9

The Battle of Midway: The Naval Institute Guide to the U.S. Navy’s Greatest Victory, edited by Thomas C. Hone, reviewed by William F. Trimble, 409-11

Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II, by Judith Barger, reviewed by Bobby A. Wintermute, 411-12

The Deserters: A Hidden History of World War II, by Charles Glass, reviewed by G. Kurt Piehler, 412-14

What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American GI in World War II France, by Mary Louise Roberts, reviewed by Stephen A. Bourque, 414-15

Secret Reports on Nazi Germany: The Frankfurt School Contribution to the War Effort –Franz Neumann, Herbert Marcuse, and Otto Kirchheimer, edited by Raffaele Laudani, reviewed by Gerhard L. Weinberg, 415-16

The Canadian Rangers: A Living History, by P. Whitney Lackenbauer, reviewed by Elizabeth Elliott-Meisel, 416-18

Yamashita’s Ghost: War Crimes, MacArthur’s Justice and Command Accountability, by Allan A. Ryan, reviewed by David A. Wallace, 418-19

Victorious Insurgencies: Four Rebellions that Shaped our World, by Anthony James Joes, reviewed by Brian R. Price, 419-21

Shooting for a Century: The India-Pakistan Conundrum, by Stephen P. Cohen, reviewed by Sumit Ganguly, 421-22

The Black Officer Corps: A History of Black Military Advancement from Integration through Vietnam, by Isaac Hampton II, reviewed by Marvin Fletcher, 422-23

Third World Colonialism and Strategies of Liberation: Eritrea and East Timor Compared, by Awet Tewelde Weldemichael, reviewed by Michael L. Gross, 424-25

Agent Orange: History, Science, and the Politics of Uncertainty, by Edwin A. Martini, reviewed by Evelyn Morris Krache, 425-26

Small Wars: Low Intensity Threats and the American Response since Vietnam, by Michael D. Gambone, reviewed by Andrew J. Birtle, 427

Four Decades On: Vietnam, the United States, and the Legacies of the Second Indochina War, edited by Scott Laderman and Edwin A. Martini, reviewed by Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, 428-29

War and War Games: The Military, Legitimacy and Success in Armed Conflict, by James Gow, reviewed by Michael F. Noone, Jr., 429-31

Investment in Blood: The True Cost of Britain’s Afghan War, by Frank Ledwidge, reviewed by Lester W. Grau, 431-32

Other Than War: The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade, by Frank N. Schubert, reviewed by Michael E. Weaver, 432-34

When Counterinsurgency Wins: Sri Lanka’s Defeat of the Tamil Tigers, by Ahmed S. Hashim, reviewed by John H. Gill, 434-35

The Foundations of Modern Terrorism: State, Society and the Dynamics of Political Violence, by Martin A. Miller, reviewed by Daniel E. Spector, 436-37

Orientalism and War, edited by Tarak Barkawi and Keith Stanski; and The Verdict of Battle: The Law of Victory and the Making of Modern War, by James Q. Whitman, reviewed by Jeremy Black, 437-38

BOOKS RECEIVED: 439-442
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 443-453
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 454-455