Journal of Military History
Vol. 79, No. 2
April 2015

Articles

The 2015 George C. Marshall Lecture in Military History

“George C. Marshall and the ‘Europe-First’ Strategy, 1939–1951: A Study in Diplomatic as well as Military History,” by Mark A. Stoler, The Journal of Military History, 79:2 (April 2015): 293-316
As Army chief of staff, secretary of state, and secretary of defense, George C. Marshall played a major role in creating, implementing, and defending the multilateral “Europe-First” global strategy that guided U.S. foreign and military policies through World War II and the Cold War. This lecture explores how and why he did so, emphasizing the decision to defeat Germany before Japan, the postwar European Recovery Program that bears Marshall’s name, and the relief of General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War for his refusal to accept this grand strategy. In the process it analyzes the complex relationship that exists between diplomatic and military history.
“The Role of Towns in the Battle of Bouvines (1214),” by Steven Isaac, The Journal of Military History, 79:2 (April 2015): 317-344
On 27 July 1214, the French king Philip II defeated a coalition of rebellious magnates and the German emperor in the Battle of Bouvines. The battle became celebrated on the French side as the first moment when all elements of society, noble and common, came together to defend the nation. This paper argues that, in fact, towns had long been participants in the military growth of France’s Capetian monarchy. A multitude of other combatants were on hand for both sides besides the knights who dominate the contemporary narratives, including mounted sergeants, mounted crossbowmen, and infantry. It is suggested here that medieval towns were home to these other soldiers. In addition, we need to appreciate the roles of towns as nodes of military production, sources of finance for war, and shapers of policy
“The Other Clausewitz: Findings from the Newly Discovered Correspondence between Marie and Carl von Clausewitz,” by Vanya Eftimova Bellinger, The Journal of Military History, 79:2 (April 2015): 345-367
The instrumental role Marie von Clausewitz played in the life of Carl von Clausewitz and the publication of his seminal work On War is often alluded to but seldom studied. The main reason for this is the fact that although Marie saved and shaped Clausewitz’s legacy, few of her own letters were published and the majority assumed lost. In July 2012, the Prussian Privy State Archives in Berlin received a truly sensational find – the full private correspondence between Marie and Carl von Clausewitz. The most valuable among them are 283 never-before published letters from Marie to her husband. They finally allow her influence over the great military theorist and her contribution to his lifework to be studied in depth. Their intellectually intensive correspondence was often echoed in Carl von Clausewitz’s writings. Marie von Clausewitz’s connections and political activism provided her husband with insight and access into the highest circles of power. Finally, by editing and publishing On War she saw his life work fulfilled.
“Living under Allied Military Government in Southern Italy during the Second World War: A Case Study of the Region of Molise,” by Amy Muschamp, The Journal of Military History, 79:2 (April 2015): 369-386
For residents of many rural areas of southern Italy, the arrival of the Allies in 1943 was their first direct experience of the Second World War. Popular history has often focused on stories of Allied POWs cared for by selfless peasant families who were keen to join the fight against fascism. However, for many southern Italian areas the experience of war was quite different. The closing years of the war became a struggle with hunger and disease and a coming to terms with an Allied occupation that brought about more casualties and destruction than action by German forces had caused. This article focuses on the little known region of Molise, in central southern Italy. It uses primary source material from the Archivio di Stato (state archive) in Campobasso, the capital of Molise, substantiated by more than thirty interviews with elderly residents of the area, to piece together the experience of Allied military government from an Italian perspective. In doing so, it seeks to offer a new and more complete picture of the Allied military occupation of Italy.
“Dirty Work? The Use of Nazi Informants by U.S. Army Intelligence in Postwar Europe,” by Thomas Boghardt, The Journal of Military History, 79:2 (April 2015): 387-422
After World War II ended in 1945, U.S. Army intelligence agencies, especially the Counter Intelligence Corps, recruited former Nazi officials, war crimes suspects, and war criminals to collect information on communist party and Soviet activities in Europe. While studies have examined individual cases, this article seeks to establish the historical context of the early Cold War that set the framework for this intelligence exploitation. It also weighs the intelligence value of the Army’s Nazi informants and reviews recruitment by other American and Allied intelligence services. Finally, it discusses the challenges of using ethical guidelines in recruiting secret agents, during the early Cold War and beyond.
“Demythologising Dhofar: British Policy, Military Strategy, and Counter-Insurgency in Oman, 1963–1976,” by Geraint Hughes, The Journal of Military History, 79:2 (April 2015): 423-456
This article re-examines the civil war (1963–1976) between the Sultanate of Oman and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO), particularly the U.K.’s support of the government. Using archival evidence and private papers, it argues that the counter-insurgency (COIN) campaign’s image as “population-centric” is flawed, and that the British and Omani governments relied more on military measures against the PFLO to recapture Dhofar province than on the “hearts and minds” and civil development programmes emphasised in traditional accounts. It counsels against using Dhofar as a possible example of indirect military assistance in contemporary COIN, arguing that the conflict’s specific historical characteristics may not be replicated now or in the immediate future.
“This ‘Horrible Example’: An Extraordinary Case of Absent Without Leave during the Vietnam War,” by William M. Donnelly, The Journal of Military History, 79:2 (April 2015): 457-466
The decision in 1965 to expand the U.S. Army's active force without a reserve mobilization quickly generated massive organizational turbulence. In this environment one unwilling soldier found an extraordinary opportunity to slip away.

Reviews:
The Schlieffen Plan: International Perspectives on the German Strategy for World War I, edited by Hans Ehlert, Michael Epkenhans, and Gerhard P. Gross, reviewed by Holger H. Herwig and by Terence Zuber, 467-71

Why South Vietnam Fell, by Anthony James Joes, reviewed by John Carland and by Mark Moyar, 471-74

A History of War in 100 Battles, by Richard Overy, reviewed by Alex Roland, 475

Chivalry and the Ideals of Knighthood in France, by Craig Taylor, reviewed by Brian R. Price, 476-77

Heroic Forms: Cervantes and the Literature of War, by Stephen Rupp, reviewed by Conxita Domènech, 478

The Birth of the Royal Marines 1664-1802, by Britt Zerbe, reviewed by Mark Charles Fissel, 479-80

The Evil Necessity: British Naval Impressment in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World, by Denver Brunsman, reviewed by Thomas Agostini, 481-82

Lovewell’s Fight: War, Death, and Memory in Borderland New England, by Robert E. Cray, reviewed by Guy Chet, 482-83

Disease, War, and the Imperial State: The Welfare of the British Armed Forces during the Seven Years’ War, by Erica Charters, reviewed by Patrick Speelman, 484-85

War Finance and Logistics in Late Imperial China, A Study of the Second Jinchuan Campaign (1771–1776), by Ulrich Theobald, reviewed by Luman Wang, 485-87

William Washington, American Light Dragoon: A Continental Cavalry Leader in the War of Independence, by Daniel Murphy, reviewed by Ricardo A. Herrera, 487-88

Dangerous Guests: Enemy Captives and Revolutionary Communities during the War for Independence, by Ken Miller, reviewed by Daniel Krebs, 488-90

When Washington Burned: An Illustrated History of the War of 1812, by Arnold Blumberg, reviewed by Russell D. James, 490-91

By Sword and Plow: France, and the Conquest of Algeria, by Jennifer E. Sessions, reviewed by Kenneth Perkins, 491-92

Two Armies on the Rio Grande: The First Campaign of the US-Mexican War, by Douglas A. Murphy, reviewed by Tyler V. Johnson, 493-94

Empire, Technology and Seapower: Royal Navy Crisis in the Age of Palmerston, by Howard J. Fuller, reviewed by Jennifer L. Speelman, 494-95

The Early Morning of War: Bull Run, 1861, by Edward G. Longacre, reviewed by Joseph C. Fitzharris, 495-96

Jubal Early: Robert E. Lee’s “Bad Old Man”, by Benjamin Franklin Cooling III, reviewed by Christopher B. Bean, 496-97

Defeating Lee: A History of the Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, by Lawrence A. Kreiser, reviewed by Fred L. Johnson III, 498-99

Stalin, Vol. 1: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928, by Stephen Kotkin, reviewed by Melanie Ilic, 499-500

Charlie’s First War, South Africa, 1899-1900, by C. H. Tweddell, edited by Carman Miller, reviewed by Stephen M. Miller, 501-2

Taking on Theodore Roosevelt: How One Senator Defied the President on Brownsville and Shook American Politics, by Harry Lembeck, reviewed by Frank N. Schubert, 502-3

Capital, the State and War: Class Conflict and Geopolitics in the Thirty Years’ Crisis, 1914-1945, by Alexander Anievas, reviewed by Keith Neilson, 503-5

Imperial Apocalypse: The Great War and the Destruction of the Russian Empire, by Joshua A. Sanborn, reviewed by Michael P. Kihntopf, 505-6

The Great War at Sea: A Naval History of the First World War, by Lawrence Sondhaus, reviewed by Gordon E. Hogg, 506-7

Fighting the Great War at Sea: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology, by Norman Friedman, reviewed by Lawrence Sondhaus, 507-8

The Indian Corps on the Western Front: A Handbook and Battlefield Guide, by Simon Doherty and Tom Donovan, reviewed by Chandar S. Sundaram, 509-10

Behind the Front: British Soldiers and French Civilians, 1914-1918, by Craig Gibson, reviewed by Christopher Schultz, 511-12

Un siècle d'oubli: Les Canadiens et la Première Guerre mondiale (1914-2014), by Jean Martin, reviewed by John MacFarlane, 512-13

Antiwar Dissent and Peace Activism in World War I America, edited by Scott H. Bennett and Charles F. Howlett, reviewed by Lon Strauss, 514-15

The American Army and the First World War, by David R. Woodward, reviewed by Douglas V. Johnson II, 515-16

Doughboys on the Great War: How American Soldiers Viewed Their Military Experience, by Edward A. Gutiérrez, reviewed by Paul Herbert, 516-17

Behind the Gas Mask: The U.S. Chemical Warfare Service in Peace and War, by Thomas I. Faith, reviewed by John Ellis van Courtland Moon, 518-19

Afghanistan: Preparing for the Bolshevik Incursion into Afghanistan and Attack on India, 1919-20, by Andrei Evgenievich Snesarev, reviewed by David Straub, 519-20

Islam and Nazi Germany’s War, by David Motadel, reviewed by Arnold Krammer, 520-21

The Devil’s Alliance: Hitler’s Pact with Stalin, 1939-1941, by Roger Moorhouse, reviewed by David R. Stone, 521-22

Defiant Diplomat: George Platt Waller, American Consul in Nazi-Occupied Luxembourg, 1939-1941, reviewed by Hal Elliott Wert, 522-24

The Second World War and the Baltic States, edited by James S. Corum, Olaf Mertelsmann, and Kaarel Piirimae, reviewed by Walter Miszczenko, 524-25

European Resistance in the Second World War, edited by Philip Cooke and Ben H. Shepherd, reviewed by Diana Mara Henry, 525-27

Shadows in the Fog: The True Story of Major Suttill and the Prosper French Resistance Network, by Francis J. Suttill, reviewed by Rita Kramer, 527-29

Victory Fever on Guadalcanal: Japan’s First Land Defeat of WWII, by William H. Bartsch, reviewed by Harold J. Goldberg, 529-30

Snow & Steel: The Battle of the Bulge, 1944-45, by Peter Caddick-Adams, reviewed by Donald B. Connelly, 531-32

Those Who Hold Bastogne: The True Story of the Soldiers and Civilians Who Fought in the Biggest Battle of the Bulge, by Peter Schrijvers, reviewed by John C. McManus, 532-34

Men to Devils, Devils to Men: Japanese War Crimes and Chinese Justice, by Barak Kushner, reviewed by Fred L. Borch III, 534-36

China 1945: Mao’s Revolution and America’s Fateful Choice, by Richard Bernstein, reviewed by S. C. M. Paine, 536-38

The Indian Army and the End of the Raj, by Daniel Marston, reviewed by Kaushik Roy, 539-40

Gender and the Long Postwar: The United States and the Two Germanys, 1945-1989, edited by Karen Hagemann and Sonya Michel, reviewed by Kara Dixon Vuic, 540-41

Against the Tide: Rickover’s Leadership Principles and the Rise of the Nuclear Navy, by Rear Adm. David Oliver, reviewed by Joel I. Holwitt, 541-43

We Fight for Peace: Twenty-three American Soldiers, Prisoners of War and ‘Turncoats’ in the Korean War, by Brian D. McKnight, reviewed by S. P. MacKenzie, 543-44

Air Power in UN Operations: Wings for Peace, edited by A. Walter Dorn, reviewed by Andrew Young, 545

Flight Plan Africa: Portuguese Airpower in Counterinsurgency, 1961-1974, by John P. Cann, reviewed by José Augusto Matos and Matthew M. Hurley, 546-47

The Thai Way of Counterinsurgency, by Jeff M. Moore, reviewed by Barry M. Stentiford, 547-48

Mourning Headband for Hue: An Account of the Battle for Hue, Vietnam 1968, by Nha Ca, reviewed by Kelly Crager, 549

The Iran-Iraq War: A Military and Strategic History, by Williamson Murray and Kevin M. Woods, reviewed by Kenneth M. Pollack, 550-51

Policing Wars: On Military Intervention in the Twenty-First Century, by Caroline Holmqvist, reviewed by William A. Taylor, 552-53

High Command: British Military Leadership in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars, by Christopher L. Elliott, reviewed by Paul Winter, 553-56

Failed States and Fragile Societies: A New World Disorder? Edited by Ingo Trauschweizer and Steven M. Miner, reviewed by Jeremy Black, 556-57

The Good War: Why We Couldn't Win the War or the Peace in Afghanistan, by Jack Fairweather, reviewed by Thomas Barfield, 557-58

Brothers Armed: Military Aspects of the Crisis in Ukraine, edited by Colby Howard and Ruslan Pukhov, reviewed by Paul Holtom, 559-60

BOOKS RECEIVED: 561-566
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 567-575
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 578-571