The Society for Military HistoryThe intellectual home for military historians worldwide

The intellectual home for military historians worldwide

Journal of Military History
Vol. 77, No. 3
July 2013

Articles

David J. Lonsdale, “Alexander the Great and the Art of Adaptation,” The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 817-35
Alexander the Great campaigned successfully for twelve years, across the range of military operations, against a wide range of opponents, and within many varied geographical environments. This article argues that this remarkable record of success can be partially attributed to Alexander’s ability to adapt at the tactical, operational and strategic levels. Alexander was also capable of operating beyond the bounds of his cultural normative framework. After a brief discussion of Macedonian warfare, this article analyses Alexander’s art of adaptation through the exploration of important strategic moments. These moments are his operations in the Balkans, defeat of the Persian navy, counterinsurgency in central Asia and the battle of Hydaspes.
Kevin J. Weddle, “‘A Change of Both Men and Measures’: British Reassessment of Military Strategy after Saratoga, 1777–1778,” The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 837-65
After the Battle of Saratoga (October 1777) in the American War of Independence, British leaders conducted a comprehensive reassessment of their military strategy but examined the new strategy’s ways and means without considering the ends or objectives of the war. Using extensive primary sources, this article examines the reassessment process and concludes that the effort was fatally flawed because King George III and his ministers failed to reevaluate the war’s objectives, given the changed strategic environment after Saratoga. The resulting British military strategy suffered from an imbalance between ends, ways, and means. Thus, British leaders incurred significant risk in executing their new strategy.
Clayton R. Newell and Charles R. Shrader, “The U.S. Army’s Transition to Peace, 1865–66,” The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 867-94
In “The U.S. Army’s Transition to Peace, 1865–66” Clayton R. Newell and Charles R. Shrader examine the actions taken by the Union Army in the year following the Civil War to demobilize the victorious army of more than one million volunteers; reduce the number of personnel, scale back the operations, and dispose of surplus equipment, supplies, and facilities of the various staff departments; and recruit the units of the Regular Army up to authorized strength. They then proceed to discuss the new missions assigned to the Army’s administrative and supply departments, including management of the Freedmen’s Bureau; caring for the disabled veterans and the fallen; and assembling the official records of the War.
Bruce Collins, “Defining Victory in Victorian Warfare, 1860–1882,” The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 895-929
The British launched numerous punitive expeditions in the decades before the international scramble for Africa. Often portrayed as ‘wars against nature’, such campaigns in fact posed considerable challenges, not least because they were conducted to tight deadlines and were expected to result in low-cost victories. Yet it was often difficult to define clear military objectives. This article explores punitive expeditions’ demands upon their commanders and the ways in which commanders found suitable culminating points, in the absence of decisive battles, when victory might be declared and celebrated. Victory had to be defined for the intervening army, for the people and leaders of the country being attacked, and for politicians and the public at home. Defining victory was thus a complex process, reflecting the range of military, political and public pressures upon commanders.
Douglas E. Delaney, “Mentoring the Canadian Corps: Imperial Officers and the Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914–1918,” The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 931-53
The Canadian Corps of 1918 was not an entirely self-made machine. It needed outside help to develop into the highly effective fighting formation that it became by war’s end. Between 1914 and 1918, the British Army sent scores of officers to Canadian formations, to make up key command and staff deficiencies in the Canadian Expeditionary Force and to train selected officers to take their places. Canadian political pressure ensured that these replacements were Canadian. The product of this somewhat ad hoc mentoring process was a Canadian Corps, commanded and staffed almost entirely by Canadian officers, that could keep pace with any British Expeditionary Force formation on the Western Front.
David Hein, “Vulnerable: HMS Prince of Wales in 1941,” The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 955-89
In 1941 HMS Prince of Wales (53) journeyed from one historic episode to the next: the fight against KMS Bismarck, the first summit between Churchill and Roosevelt, convoy duty in the Mediterranean, and Force Z to the Far East, where she was sunk off the east coast of Malaya on 10 December. In addition, the Prince of Wales sailed from history-as-what-happened into history-as-public-memory. This article not only offers a portrait of an important man-of-war that has lacked a comprehensive biographical treatment; it also proposes consideration of a recurring theme—vulnerability—and follows this thread throughout this ship’s history.
Mark C. Jones, “Friend and Advisor to the Allied Navies: The Royal Navy’s Principal Liaison Officer and Multinational Naval Operations in World War II,” The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 991-1023
The collaboration during World War II (1939–45) between the British Royal Navy (RN) and the navies-in-exile of Poland, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Yugoslavia, and Greece necessitated the creation of a liaison system between senior naval officers to ensure the effective integration of Allied navies into RN commands. This article’s purpose is to explain the RN’s World War II senior-level naval liaison system. It addresses the origin, duties, and evolution of the office of Principal Liaison Officer, Allied Navies (PNLO), and evaluates how the liaison office influenced the relationship between the RN and the Allied navies.
Dwight S. Mears, “The Catch-22 Effect: The Lasting Stigma of Wartime Cowardice in the U.S. Army Air Forces,” The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 1025-54
During World War II, U.S. airmen circulated pernicious rumors about the motives of the hundreds of aircrews who landed in neutral countries. Although investigated and disproven by the leadership of the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF), the rumors persisted in popular memory and ultimately stigmatized the veterans who endured neutral captivity. This essay examines the motives of some airmen who landed in Switzerland, and argues that the stigma associated with neutral captivity resulted in denials of benefits and military decorations to deserving veterans.
Steven A. Fino, “Breaking the Trance: The Perils of Technological Exuberance in the U.S. Air Force Entering Vietnam,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 625-655.
A survey of U.S. Air Force air-to-air armament from World War II through Vietnam’s Operation ROLLING THUNDER reveals the institution’s focus on developing advanced technologies and tactics designed to thwart hordes of Soviet bombers. Challenged by nimble MiGs over Vietnam, the service was reluctant to investigate “low-tech” armament solutions. When the value of a gun in air combat was finally acknowledged, the Air Force elected to field it as part of an integrated weapons system on the F-4E. In the interim, pilots at DaNang air base cobbled together an inelegant but effective air-to-air external gun system. The episode reveals the significant potential, and fragility, of unit-initiated tactical innovation and the peril that can arise when an organization’s technological exuberance obfuscates less technologically-appealing solutions.
Review Essay:

Nicholas A. Lambert, “False Prophet?: The Maritime Theory of Julian Corbett and Professional Military Education," The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 1055-78
Review Essay:

Jerry Lenaburg, “Iraq & Afghanistan,” The Journal of Military History 77 #3 (July 2013): 1079-84.

Reviews:
Strategies for the Human Realm: Crux of the T’ai-pai Yin-Ching, translated with commentary by Ralph D. Sawyer, reviewed by David A. Graff, 1085-86

The Taktika of Leo VI, translated by George T. Dennis, reviewed by Warren Treadgold, 1086-88

Warfare and Politics in Medieval Germany, ca. 1000. On the Variety of Our Times, by Alpert of Metz, translated and with an introduction by David S. Bachrach, reviewed by David A. Warner, 1088-89

Britain, Ireland & the Crusades, c.1000-1300, by Kathryn Hurlock, reviewed by Conor Kostick, 1089-90

China as a Sea Power 1127-1368: A Preliminary Survey of the Maritime Expansion and Naval Exploits of the Chinese People during the Southern Song and Yuan Periods, by Lo Jung-pang, edited by Bruce A. Elleman, reviewed by Don J. Wyatt, 1091-92

The Siege and the Fall of Constantinople in 1453: Historiography, Topography, and Military Studies, by Marios Philippides and Walter K. Hanak, reviewed by Everett L. Wheeler, 1092-94

Europe: The Struggle for Supremacy from 1453 to the Present, by Brendan Simms, reviewed by Jeremy Black, 1094-95

A Short History of the Wars of the Roses, by David Grummit, reviewed by Benjamin J. Sparks, 1096-97

The Army in Cromwellian England 1649-1660, by Henry Reece, reviewed by Bernard Capp, 1097-98

The Militia in Eighteenth-century Ireland: In Defence of the Protestant Interest, by Neal Garnham, reviewed by David Fleming, 1098-99

The Best of Enemies: Germans against Jacobites, 1746, by Christopher Duffy, reviewed by Daniel Szechi, 1100-1

Soldiering in Britain and Ireland, 1750-1850: Men at Arms, edited by Catriona Kennedy and Matthew McCormick, reviewed by Patrick J. Speelman, 1101-3

The British Navy, Economy and Society in the Seven Years War, by Christian Buchet, reviewed by Jonathan R. Dull, 1103-4

Adliges Leben am Ausgang des Ancien Régime. Die Tagebuchaufzeichnungen (1754-1798) des Georg Ernst von und zu Gilsa, edited by Holger Theodor Gräf, Lena Haunert and Christoph Kampmann with the collaboration of Patrick Sturm, reviewed by Robert A. Selig, 1104-6

Midshipmen and Quarterdeck Boys in the British Navy, 1771-1831, by S. A. Cavell, reviewed by Roland Pietsch, 1106-7

The Papers of George Washington. Revolutionary War Series, Vol. 21 (1 June-31 July 1779), edited by William M. Ferraro, reviewed by Harold E. Selesky, 1108-10

A Companion to George Washington, edited by Edward G. Lengel, reviewed by Rebecca Brannon, 1110-11

The Razing of Tinton Falls: Voices from the American Revolution, by Michael S. Adelberg, reviewed by Mark Edward Lender, 1112-13

One Frenchman, Four Revolutions: General Ferrand and the Peoples of the Caribbean, by Fernando Picò, reviewed by Claire Robertson, 1113-14

Transnational Soldiers: Foreign Military Enlistment in the Modern Era, edited by Nir Arielli and Bruce Collins, reviewed by Daniel Moran, 1114-16

Arming the Periphery: The Arms Trade in the Indian Ocean during the Age of Global Empire, by Emrys Chew, reviewed by Chandar S. Sundaram, 1116-17

An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti, by Marcus Rainsford, edited and with an introduction by Paul Youngquist and Grégory Pierrot, reviewed by Philippe Girard, 1118-19

The Transformation of British Naval Strategy: Seapower and Supply in Northern Europe, 1808-1812, by James Davey, reviewed by Kevin D. McCranie, 1119-20

The Exploits of Ensign Bakewell, With the Inniskillings in the Peninsula, 1810-11; and in Paris, 1815, edited by Ian Robertson, reviewed by Frank Garosi, 1120-21

Jackson's Sword: The Army Officer Corps on the American Frontier, 1810-1821, by Samuel J. Watson, reviewed by Jeanne T. Heidler, 1122-23

Free Trade and Sailors’ Rights in the War of 1812, by Paul A. Gilje, reviewed by Michael J. Crawford, 1123-24

L’autre 1812. La seconde guerre de l’indépendance américaine, by Sylvain Rousillon, reviewed by Roch Legault, 1124-25

Citizen Soldiers and the British Empire, 1837-1902, edited by Ian F.W. Beckett, reviewed by E. W. McFarland, 1126-27

A Wicked War: Polk, Clay, Lincoln, and the 1846 U.S. Invasion of Mexico, by Amy S. Greenberg, reviewed by Timothy D. Johnson, 1127-29

Freedom National: The Destruction of Slavery in the United States, 1861-1865, by James Oakes, reviewed by Thomas G. Nester, 1129-30

The Letters of General Richard S. Ewell, Stonewall’s Successor, edited by Donald C. Pfanz, reviewed by Michael C. C. Adams, 1131-32

Jews and the Civil War: A Reader, edited by Jonathan D. Sarna and Adam Mendelsohn, reviewed by Robert H. Berlin, 1132-34

War’s Desolating Scourge: The Union’s Occupation of North Alabama, by Joseph W. Danielson, reviewed by Paul Renard, 1134-35

The Chattanooga Campaign, edited by Steven E. Woodworth and Charles D. Grear, reviewed by S. Chandler Lighty, 1135-36

The Knoxville Campaign: Burnside and Longstreet in East Tennessee, by Earl J. Hess, reviewed by Joshua Shiver, 1137-38

What the Yankees Did to Us: Sherman’s Bombardment and Wreckage of Atlanta, by Stephen Davis, reviewed by Clay Mountcastle, 1138-39

A Misplaced Massacre: Struggling Over the Memory of Sand Creek, by Ari Kelman, reviewed by Sherry L. Smith, 1139-41

To the Battles of Franklin and Nashville and Beyond: Stabilization and Reconstruction in Tennessee and Kentucky, 1864-1866, by Benjamin Franklin Cooling, reviewed by Steven E. Sodergren, 1141-42

Conflicting Memories on the “River of Death”: The Chickamauga Battlefield and the Spanish-American War, 1863-1933, by Bradley S. Keefer, reviewed by Candice Shy Hooper, 1142-43

The ‘Old Guard’ in the Philippine War: A Combat Chronicle and Roster, by Greg Eanes, reviewed by Charles H. Bogart, 1143-44

Militarism and the British Left, 1902-1914, by Matthew Johnson, reviewed by Ingo Trauschweizer, 1145-46

A Two-Edged Sword: The Navy as an Instrument of Canadian Foreign Policy, by Nicholas Tracy, reviewed by Joel J. Sokolsky, 1146-49

Dance of the Furies: Europe and the Outbreak of World War I, by Michael S. Neiberg, reviewed by Samuel R. Williamson, Jr., 1149-50

The Romanian Battlefront in World War I, by Glenn E. Torrey, reviewed by John Ashbrook, 1151-52

A Short History of the Spanish Civil War, by Julián Casanova, reviewed by Michael Seidman, 1152-53

Substitute for Power: Wartime British Propaganda to the Balkans, 1939-44, by Ioannis Stefanidis, reviewed by John O. Iatrides, 1153-55

The Pursuit of the Nazi Mind: Hitler, Hess, and the Analysts, by Daniel Pick, reviewed by David R. Snyder, 1155-56

British Aviation in World War II: The U.S. Navy and Anglo-American Relations, by Gilbert S. Guinn and G. H. Bennett, reviewed by Stephen K. Stein, 1157-58

Unflinching Zeal: The Air Battles over France and Britain, May-October 1940, by Robin Higham, reviewed by Richard R. Muller, 1158-59

Operation Typhoon: Hitler’s March on Moscow, October 1941, by David Stahel, reviewed by David M. Glantz, 1159-60

Twelve Turning Points of the Second World War, by. P. M. H. Bell, reviewed by Steven S. Minniear, 1161

Engineers of Victory: The Problem Solvers Who Turned the Tide in the Second World War, by Paul Kennedy, reviewed by Peter Dennis, 1162-63

The United States in World War II: A Documentary Reader, edited by G. Kurt Piehler, reviewed by James Westheider, 1163-64

Rückzug: The German Retreat from France, 1944, by Joachim Ludewig, edited by David T. Zabecki, reviewed by Charles Messenger, 1164-66

Air Commanders, edited by John Andreas Olsen, reviewed by Phillip S. Meilinger, 1166-67

Nuclear Statecraft: History and Strategy in America’s Atomic Age, by Francis J. Gavin, reviewed by Charles F. Brower, 1167-68

Beijing’s Power and China’s Borders: Twenty Neighbors in Asia, edited by Bruce Elleman, Stephen Kotkin, and Clive Schofield, reviewed by Allen Carlson, 1169-70

Confrontation, Strategy and War Termination. Britain’s Conflict with Indonesia, by Christopher Tuck, reviewed by David French, 1170-71

Shadow Warrior: William Egan Colby and the CIA, by Randall B. Woods, reviewed by Brian R. Price, 1171-72

Blowtorch: Robert Komer, Vietnam, and American Cold War Strategy, by Frank Leith Jones, reviewed by John Carland, 1173-74

Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam, by Nick Turse, reviewed by Gregory A. Daddis, 1174-76

Vietnam Labyrinth: Allies, Enemies and Why the U.S. Lost the War, by Tran Ngoc Chau with Ken Fermoyle, reviewed by Peter Brush, 1176-77

Bloody Sunday: Truth, Lies and the Saville Inquiry, by Douglas Murray, reviewed by Matthew Hughes, 1177-79

War Comes to Garmser: Thirty Years of Conflict on the Afghan Frontier, by Carter Malkasian, reviewed by Mark R. Jacobson, 1179-81

Disposable Heroes: The Betrayal of African American Veterans, by Benjamin Fleury-Steiner, reviewed by Robert F. Saxe, 1181-82

Virtual War and Magical Death: Technologies and Imaginaries for Terror and Killing, edited by Neil L. Whitehead and Sverker Finnstroem, reviewed by Paul Richards, 1182-83


Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED: 1184-88
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 1189-97
DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS IN MILITARY HISTORY: 1198-1206
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 1207-1212