Journal of Military History
Vol. 86, No. 3
July 2022


The 2022 George C. Marshall Lecture in Military History
“Centuries of Security: Chinese, Russian and U.S. Continental versus Maritime Approaches,” by Sarah C. M. Paine, Journal of Military History 86:4 (October 2022): 813–36
“The ‘Push of Pike’ in Seventeenth-Century English Infantry Combat,” by Dukhee Yun, Journal of Military History 86:4 (October 2022): 837–57
Despite their importance, the role of pikemen in battle and the mechanics of pike combat during the seventeenth century have not received proper attention. Taking English armies of the period as a case study, this article uses contemporary sources and recent research on the warfare of other periods with the goal of redressing this. It examines several seventeenth-century battles involving English armies and concludes that pikemen played a far more critical part than previously assumed. It examines the limitations of previous models used to explain how pikemen actually fought and suggests a new model, based on a close reading of the sources.
“‘Measures of Conciliation’: Winfield Scott, Henry Halleck, and the Origins of U.S. Army Counterinsurgency Doctrine,” by Benjamin J. Swenson, Journal of Military History 86:4 (October 2022): 859–81
The genesis of U.S. Army counterinsurgency doctrine was the work of Major General Winfield Scott and officer and scholar Henry Halleck, whom he sent to Europe prior to the Mexican-American War (1846–1848) in part to study Napoleon’s failed occupation of Spain during the Peninsular War (1808–1814). The novel occupation program that Scott called “measures of conciliation” aimed to forestall insurgency and win compliance among the Mexican people. While many historians are familiar with Scott’s military-legal codes enacted in Mexico, Halleck’s role in the development of U.S. Army COIN doctrine and its direct influence on the formation of the Lieber Code during the U.S. Civil War and thence the Geneva Convention articles has been overlooked. This article reviews the war and explores the collaboration between Scott and Halleck and its historic influence.
“‘A Violent Desire for the Amusements’: Boxing, Libraries, and the Distribution and Management of Welfare During the First World War,” by Mark T. Hauser, Journal of Military History 86:4 (October 2022): 883–913
During the First World War, American War Department officials and their welfare affiliates (including the YMCA, Knights of Columbus, and American Library Association) provided servicemen with an unprecedented scale and scope of leisure activities by embracing new distribution and management approaches. Historians examining troops' leisure have focused on bureaucrats’ coercive actions restricting access to vice districts, but progressive authorities also hired staffers who could identify individual soldiers' preferences and construct complex distribution networks on both sides of the Atlantic. By examining the military’s role in blurring public–private boundaries in welfare work, administrators’ postwar careers, and veterans’ expectations, this article illustrates wartime recreation programs’ impact on the development of mass culture.
“Reevaluating Ghormley and Halsey at Guadalcanal,” by Jeff T. Reardon, Journal of Military History 86:4 (October 2022): 915–48
For decades, authors of World War II have labeled Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley a failed commander in chief of the South Pacific Area during 1942. They have portrayed him as an overly cautious, pessimistic, and even defeatist leader whom Admiral Chester Nimitz, fortunately, replaced with the more aggressive and successful Vice Admiral William F. Halsey in October 1942. Yet Ghormley performed well as South Pacific commander under difficult circumstances, and his actions compare favorably with those of his more venerated successor.
“From the Art of Practical Sailing to the Electronic Science of Navigation: Typhoons, Seamanship, and U.S. Naval Operations in the Northwest Pacific, 1944–1945,” by Greg Bankoff, Journal of Military History 86:4 (October 2022): 949–72
The Pacific theater of World War II represents a turning point in the history of navigation: whether a ship’s commander should entrust the safety of his vessel to his own judgment based on years of practical experience at sea or rely instead on radio broadcasts, the beginnings of “big data,” and the output of detection systems, including radar. U.S. naval campaigns in the Northwest Pacific during World War II, when some of the largest armadas of naval vessels ever assembled were continuously at sea in a relatively restricted maritime area for months at a time, provide notable occasions when the old and the new knowledge were tested under extreme weather conditions and the exigencies of wartime operations. This article examines the role of typhoons and the science of their prediction in relation to U.S. naval operations in the Pacific theater in 1944–1945.
Book Reviews:
Proud Warriors: African American Combat Units in World War II, by Alexander M. Bielakowski, reviewed by Mark R. Folse and by William A. Taylor, 973–76

Afghanistan: A Military History from the Ancient Empires to the Great Game, by Ali Ahmad Jalali, reviewed by Elisabeth Leake, 976–78

At the Gates of Rome: The Fall of the Eternal City, AD 410, by Don Hollway, reviewed by Gwyn Davies, 978–80

The Normans: Power, Conquest & Culture in 11th-Century Europe, by Judith A. Green, reviewed by Matt King, 980–81

Dynasties Intertwined: The Zirids of Ifriqiya and the Normans of Sicily, by Matt King, reviewed by Nicholas Morton, 982–83

A Military History of Texas, by Loyd Uglow, reviewed by Charles R. McCoy, 983–85

Anatomy of Torture, by Ron E. Hassner, reviewed by John D. Young, 985–87

European Military Rivalry, 1500–1750: Fierce Pageant, by Gregory Hanlon, reviewed by John M. Stapleton Jr., 987–89

The First World Empire: Portugal, War, and Military Revolution, edited by Hélder Carvalhal, André Murteira, and Roger Lee de Jesus, reviewed by George Satterfield, 989–90

Women in Wartime: Theatrical Representations in the Long Eighteenth Century, by Paula R. Backscheider, reviewed by Matilda Greig, 991–92

Disaster on the Spanish Main: The Tragic British-American Expedition to the West Indies during the War of Jenkins’ Ear, by Craig S. Chapman, reviewed by Matthew J. Sparacio, 992–94

The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: Strategies for a World War, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by Nick Kramer, 994–96

Warfare and Logistics Along the US-Canadian Border during the War of 1812, by Christopher Dishman, reviewed by Tanya Grodzinski, 996–98

Zulu Kings and Their Armies, by Jonathan Sutherland and Diane Canwell, reviewed by Jochen S. Arndt, 998–99

The Late Colonial Indian Army: From the Afghan Wars to the Second World War, by Pradeep Barua, reviewed by Andrew Salamone, 1000–1

Lieutenant General James Longstreet: Innovative Military Strategist. The Most Misunderstood Civil War General, by F. Gregory Toretta, reviewed by Trace Brusco, 1001–3

Suffering in the Army of Tennessee: A Social History of the Confederate Army of the Heartland from the Battles for Atlanta to the Retreat from Nashville, by Christopher Thrasher, reviewed by Joseph Driesenga, 1003–4

Blood and Bronze: The British Empire & the Sack of Benin, by Paddy Docherty, reviewed by M. T. Howard, 1005–6

A British Profession of Arms: The Politics of Command in the Late Victorian Army, by Ian F. W. Beckett, reviewed by Jeremy Black, 1007–8

Recharging China in War and Revolution, 1882–1955, by Ying Jia Tan, reviewed by Zhongtian Han, 1008–9

Bodies for Battle: U.S. Army Physical Culture and Systematic Training, 1885–1957, by Garrett Gatzemeyer, reviewed by Jessica Luepke, 1010–11

Parker Hitt: The Father of American Military Cryptology, by Betsy Rohaly Smoot, reviewed by Arnold Blumberg, 1012–13

¡Vamos a avanzar! The Chaco War and Bolivia’s Political Transformation, 1899–1952, by Robert Niebuhr, reviewed by Elizabeth Shesko, 1013–14

The Austro-Hungarian Army and the First World War, by Graydon A. Tunstall, reviewed by Timothy C. Dowling, 1015–16

General Jan Smuts and His First World War in Africa, 1914–1917, by David Brock Katz, reviewed by Elvar Ingimundarson, 1016–18

Posthumous Lives: World War I and the Culture of Memory, by Bette London, reviewed by Robert H. Clemm, 1018–19

Mobilizing Memory: The Great War and the Language of Politics in Colonial Algeria, 1918–39, by Dónal Hassett, reviewed by Elizabeth M. Perego, 1019–21

Victory Without Peace: The United States Navy in European Waters, 1919–1924, by William N. Still Jr., reviewed by Bradley Cesario, 1021–23

A Short History of the Spanish Civil War, by Julián Casanova, reviewed by David A. Messenger, 1023–24

Victory at Sea: Naval Power and the Transformation of the Global Order in World War II, by Paul Kennedy, reviewed by Andrew Lambert, 1025–26

Survivors: Warsaw under Nazi Occupation, by Jadwiga Biskupska, reviewed by Kara Irvin, 1026–28

Sea of Blood: A Military History of the Partisan Movement in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945, by Gaj Trifkovic, reviewed by Milorad Lazic, 1028–30

A War of Empires: Japan, India, Burma & Britain 1941–45, by Robert Lyman, reviewed William Preston McLaughlin, 1030–32

Militarization and the American Century: War, the United States and the World since 1941, by David Fitzgerald, reviewed by Rebecca McGee, 1032–33

Wannsee: The Road to the Final Solution, by Peter Longerich, reviewed by Martin Comack, 1034–35

The Silver Waterfall: How America Won the War in the Pacific at Midway, by Brendan Simms and Steven McGregor, reviewed by Hal Friedman, 1035–37

Eavesdropping on the Emperor: Interrogators and Codebreakers in Britain’s War with Japan, by Peter Kornicki, reviewed by Noriko Kawamura, 1037–38

War of Supply: World War II Allied Logistics in the Mediterranean, by David D. Dworak, reviewed by Timothy M. Gilhool, 1039–40

Eleven Winters of Discontent: The Siberian Internment and the Making of a New Japan, by Sherzod Muminov, reviewed by Derek R. Mallett, 1040–41

The Road to Dien Bien Phu: A History of the First War for Vietnam, by Christopher Goscha; and The First Vietnam War: Violence, Sovereignty, and the Fracture of the South, 1945–1956, by Shawn F. McHale, reviewed by Justin Simundson, 1042–43

Israel’s Moment: International Support for and Opposition to Establishing the Jewish State, 1945–1949, by Jeffrey Herf, reviewed by Nigel Ashton, 1044–46

Dear Palestine: A Social History of the 1948 War, by Shay Hazkani, reviewed by Jørgen Jensehaugen, 1047–48

Capital of Spies: Intelligence Agencies in Berlin during the Cold War, by Sven Felix Kellerhoff and Bernd von Kostka, reviewed by Adam R. Seipp, 1048–50

Settler Garrison: Debt Imperialism, Militarism, and Transpacific Imaginaries, by Jodi Kim, reviewed by Paxton Stover, 1050–51

The Malayan Emergency: Revolution and Counterinsurgency at the End of Empire, by Karl Hack, reviewed by Wei Ong, 1051–53

Spies and Traitors: Kim Philby, James Angleton and the Friendship and Betrayal that would Shape MI6, the CIA, and the Cold War, by Michael Holzman, reviewed by David Abrutat, 1053–54

Watchman at the Gates: A Soldier's Journey from Berlin to Bosnia, by George Joulwan, reviewed by Craig Giorgis, 1055–56

Spies on the Mekong: CIA Clandestine Operations in Laos, by Ken Conroy, reviewed by Peter Clemens, 1056–58

Take Charge and Move Out: The Founding Fathers of TACAMO: True Believers and the Rise of Navy Strategic Communications, by Lewis F. McIntyre, reviewed by Sarah-Louise Miller, 1058–59

Subordinating Intelligence: The DoD/CIA Post-Cold War Relationship, by David P. Oakley, reviewed by Mark R. Shulman, 1060–61

America’s Wars: Interventions, Regime Change, and Insurgencies after the Cold War, by Thomas H. Henriksen, reviewed by Hazem K Kandil, 1061–63

The Regime Change Consensus: Iraq in American Politics, 1990–2003, by Joseph Stieb, reviewed by Ethan S. Rafuse, 1063–65

After the Wall Came Down: Soldiering through the Transformation of the British Army, 1990–2020, by Andrew Richards, reviewed by Joshua Bilton, 1065–66

Empire of Terror: Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, by Mark D. Silinsky, reviewed by Zayad Bangash, 1067–68

America’s War in Syria: Fighting with Kurdish Anti-Isis Forces, by Till “Baz” Paasche, John Foxx, and Shaun Murray, reviewed by Matt Marfongelli, 1068–70

Soldiers of End-Times: Assessing the Military Effectiveness of the Islamic State, by Ido Levy, reviewed by Joseph Morrison Skelly, 1070–71



INDEX TO VOLUME 86: 1085–1104
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