Journal of Military History
Vol. 86, No. 3
July 2022


“The First Invasion of Georgia and the Myth of Westo Power, 1656–1684,” by Dixie Ray Haggard, Journal of Military History 86:3 (July 2022): 533–56
In 1659, a mysterious people, later known as the Westos, attacked the Native American towns of central Georgia and began enslaving those it captured. These assaults marked the beginning of two decades in which Westo slave raids terrorized the region and helped trigger massive changes in the socio-political landscape of the Deep South. Yet little is known about the Westos’ initial forays into the area, and why they were so successful. Most scholars believe their success hinged on their acquisition and use of firearms against bow-and-arrow cultures. This essay argues for a more nuanced and realistic interpretation of Westo power as demonstrated by the route they used to access the Deep South, the types of weapons available to them, the tactics they used, and ultimately, how the indigenous people of region interpreted the Westos’ presence.
“The Russian Baltic Fleet in the Seven Years’ War,” Brian Davies, Journal of Military History 86:3 (July 2022): 557–72
The Russian Imperial Baltic Fleet founded by Peter I (the Great) of Russia suffered serious neglect after his death, and Russian grand strategy had to be revised to avoid deploying it in naval combat. During the Seven Years' War, the fleet played a minor, supporting role in coastal cruising and landing troops; its most significant accomplishment was supporting the siege of Kolberg. Upon her accession in 1762, Empress Catherine II (the Great) embraced administrative and training reforms that significantly improved the fleet's operational effectiveness, which was first demonstrated in the Aegean Expedition of 1769–1774.
“Logistics of U. S. Grant’s 1863 Mississippi Campaign: From the Amphibious Landing at Bruinsburg to the Siege of Vicksburg,” Phillip R. Kemmerly, Journal of Military History 86:3 (July 2022): 573–611
The historiography of U. S. Grant’s 1863 Vicksburg Campaign is extensive. Numerous tactical studies dissect in detail unit movements, strategy, and the intricacies of the siege leading to the fall of Vicksburg. Much of the campaign’s logistics remain largely untreated. This study assesses the impact of environmental conditions on complex logistical operations and how those conditions constrained battle plans, dictated command decisions, and determined tactics, given the limitations of Civil War technology. Primary focus is on Grant’s land campaign from Bruinsburg Landing to the initiation of the siege of Vicksburg. A shift from a combat operations-based to a science-based paradigm synergizes battlefield weather conditions, terrain limitations, physical properties of soils traversed by an animal-dependent army on the move, and the impact of geology on trafficability and sources of potable water, offering a new understanding of what many consider the most important campaign of the Civil War.
“Operation Q: Churchill and Fisher’s Invasion of Germany, 1915?” Richard Dunley, Journal of Military History 86:3 (July 2022): 612–41
British strategy during the First World War has long been a contentious issue, and whether the nation’s sea power could have been used to greater effect lies at the heart of the debate. This article presents new evidence to show that both Winston Churchill and Admiral Lord Fisher, the key figures in the Admiralty in the opening year of the war, focused on implementing a naval offensive against Germany throughout their time in office. The first stages of this operation came within hours of execution in May 1915. This revelation sheds new light on the wider British strategic approach and on the significance of the fall of the Fisher-Churchill regime for Britain’s grand strategy.
“‘Waltzing Matilda’ Out of Vietnam: Grand Strategy, Politics, and the Decision to Remove Australian Military Forces from Vietnam,” David L. Prentice, Journal of Military History 86:3 (July 2022): 642–69
In the 1960s, Australia’s commitment to collective security and its grand strategy of forward defense spurred its intervention in Vietnam. As British and American allies signaled retreat from Southeast Asia in 1968–1969, Prime Minister John Gorton sought to encourage U.S. resolve by keeping Australian forces there. With more American soldiers coming home under the guise of Vietnamization, the Australian public increasingly demanded troop withdrawals. The political facts of life became paramount, with Gorton’s government buckling in 1970. This article explains the military, strategic, diplomatic, and political considerations that produced Canberra’s decision to begin troop reductions in Vietnam.
“Still Misreading Svechin: Annihilation, Attrition, and Their Strategic and Operational Implications,” Dmitry Plotnikov, Journal of Military History 86:3 (July 2022): 670–87
Russian and Soviet military theorist Aleksandr Svechin developed his theory of military art based on the two cornerstone concepts: annihilation and attrition. Yet these concepts frequently have been misunderstood by his critics, who demoted them from the strategic to the operational level. A close examination of Svechin’s legacy allows reinstating annihilation and attrition as characterizations of the overall dynamics of war rather than mere styles of warfare freely adopted by a given belligerent. When viewed in the context of operational/strategic distinction, moreover, the Soviet theorist's concepts remain as important and practically applicable today as they were in the early 20th century.
Book Reviews:
Besting the Best: Warriors and Warfare in the Cultural and Religious Traditions of Tibet; A Historical, Ethnographic, and Archaeological Survey of Martialism over the Last Three Millennia, by John Vincent Bellezza, reviewed by George FitzHerbert, 688–89

Twenty Battles that Shaped Medieval Europe, by Georgios Theotokis, reviewed by Steven Isaac, 690–91

Paths of Fire: The Gun and the World it Made, by Andrew Nahum, reviewed by West Robeson, 691–93

On Contested Shores: The Evolving Role of Amphibious Operations in the History of Warfare, edited by Timothy Heck and B. A. Friedman, reviewed by James Sandy, 693–95

Mars Adapting: Military Change during War, by Frank G. Hoffman, reviewed by William Thomas Allison, 695–97

A Brave and Cunning Prince: The Great Chief Opechancanough and the War for America, by James Horn, reviewed by Jason W. Warren, 697–98

Queen Anne’s War: The Second Contest for North America, 1702–1713, by Michael G. Laramie, reviewed by Darryl Dee, 699–700

To the End of the World: Nathanael Greene, Charles Cornwallis, and the Race to the Dan, by Andrew Waters, reviewed by Aaron D. Dilday, 700–2

Napoleon Absent, Coalition Ascendant: The 1799 Campaign in Italy and Switzerland, volume 1; and The Coalition Crumbles, Napoleon Returns: The 1799 Campaign in Italy and Switzerland, volume 2, by Carl von Clausewitz, translated and edited by Nicholas Murray and Christopher Pringle, reviewed by Frederick C. Schneid, 702–3

Inside the US Navy of 1812–1815, by William S. Dudley, reviewed by Donald E. Graves, 704–5

Indianization, the Officer Corps, and the Indian Army. The Forgotten Debate, 1817–1917, by Chandar S. Sundaram, reviewed by Jesse Tumblin, 705–7

On Wide Seas: The U.S. Navy in the Jacksonian Era, by Claude Berube, reviewed by Michael A. Verney, 707–8

The Crimean War and Its Afterlife: Making Modern Britain, by Lara Kriegel, reviewed by Jeremy Black, 709–10

Dorwart’s History of the Office of Naval Intelligence, 1865–1945, by Jeffery M. Dorwart, reviewed by Scott Mobley, 710–11

Unburied Lives: The Historical Archaeology of Buffalo Soldiers at Fort Davis, Texas, 1869–1875, by Laurie Wilkie, reviewed by Kris Klein Hernández, 712–13

John Finerty Reports the Sioux War, edited by Paul Hedren, reviewed by Jeffrey D. Means, 713–14

Making Officers out of Gentlemen: Military Institution-Building in India, c. 1900–1960, by Vipul Dutta, reviewed by Radha Kumar, 715–16

The Herero Genocide: War, Emotion and Extreme Violence in Colonial Namibia, by Matthias Häussler, reviewed by M. T. Howard, 716–18

Photography in the Great War: The Ethics of Emerging Medical Collections from the Great War, by Jason Bate, reviewed by Michael Brown, 718–20

The Great War and the Birth of Modern Medicine: A History, by Thomas Helling, reviewed by Shelley Castle, 720–22

The Western Front: A History of the Great War 1914–1918, by Nick Lloyd, reviewed by Ian Isherwood, 722–23

Montreal at War: 1914–1918, by Terry Copp, reviewed by Thomas M. Littlewood, 723–25

Trauma, Religion, and Spirituality in Germany during the First World War, by Jason Crouthamel, reviewed by Andrew Santora, 725–27

Global War, Global Catastrophe: Neutrals, Belligerents and the Transformation of the First World War, by Maartje Abbenhuis and Ismee Tames, reviewed by Emmanuel Destenay, 727–29

Judge Advocates in the Great War, 1917–1922, by Fred L. Borch III, reviewed by Jonathan Lurie, 729–30

The American Army in Germany, 1918–1923: Success Against the Odds, by Dean A. Nowowiejski, reviewed by Christopher Thomas Goodwin, 730–32

Tower of Skulls: A History of the Asia-Pacific War, July 1937–May 1942, by Richard B. Frank, reviewed by Kevin C. Holzimmer, 732–34

War and Society in Colonial Zambia, 1939–1953, by Alfred Tembo, reviewed by Stephen M. Miller, 734–35

When France Fell: The Vichy Crisis and the Fate of the Anglo-American Alliance, by Michael S. Neiberg, reviewed by Stephen A. Bourque, 736–37

Patton’s War: An American General’s Combat Leadership. Volume I: November 1942–July 1944, by Kevin M. Hymel, reviewed by David Gray, 737–39

Liberating Libya: British Diplomacy and War in the Desert, by Rupert Wieloch, reviewed by Samuel Wallace, 739–41

Operation Crusader and the Desert War in British History and Memory, by Alexander H. Joffe, reviewed by Bryan McClure, 741–42

Hitler’s American Gamble: Pearl Harbor and Germany’s March to Global War, by Brendan Simms and Charlie Laderman, reviewed by Kory Miller, 742–43

Sea of Blood: A Military History of the Partisan Movement in Yugoslavia 1941–1945, by Gaj Trifkovic, reviewed by Klaus Schmider, 744–45

Brutal War: Jungle Fighting in Papua New Guinea, 1942, by James Jay Carafano, reviewed by Jordan Beavis, 745–47

Japanese American Incarceration: The Camps and Coerced Labor during World War II, by Stephanie Hinnershitz, reviewed by Derek R. Mallett, 747–49

Nations in the Balance: The India-Burma Campaigns, December 1943–August 1944, by Christopher L. Kolakowski, reviewed by Edward M. Young, 749–50

Island Infernos: The US Army’s Pacific War Odyssey, 1944, by John C. McManus, reviewed by Darrell Ashworth, 751–52

Semut: The Untold Story of a Secret Australian Operation in WWII Borneo, by Christine Helliwell, reviewed by Karl James, 752–53

Buttoned Up: American Armor and the 781st Tank Battalion in World War II, by Westin Ellis Robeson, reviewed by Ralph M. Hitchens, 753–55

Asian American Spies: How Asian Americans Helped Win the Allied Victory, by Brian Masaru Hayashi, reviewed by John C. Hanley, 755–57

There from the Beginning: Women in the US Air Force, by Marissa N. Kester, reviewed by Kaitlyn Ross, 757–58

Fighting Australia’s Cold War: The Nexus of Strategy and Operations in a Multipolar Asia, 1945–1965, edited by Peter Dean and Tristan Moss, reviewed by Philip Webster, 758–60

The New Dogs of War: Nonstate Actor Violence in International Politics, by Ward Thomas, reviewed by Laurence M. Nelson III, 760–62

An American Brothel: Sex and Diplomacy during the Vietnam War, by Amanda Boczar, reviewed by Natalie Shibley, 762–63

Clear, Hold, and Destroy: Pacification in Phú Yên and the American War in Vietnam, by Robert J. Thompson III, reviewed by Justin Simundson, 764–65

A Military History of India since 1972: Full Spectrum Operations and the Changing Contours of Modern Conflict, by Arjun Subramaniam, reviewed by Chandar S. Sundaram, 766–67

Apartheid’s Black Soldiers: Un-National Wars and Militaries in Southern Africa, by Lennart Bolliger, reviewed by Dawne Y. Curry, 767–69

Reporting the Siege of Sarajevo, by Kenneth Morrison & Paul Lowe, reviewed by Aida A. Hozić, 769–71

Helping Soldiers Heal: How the US Army Created a Learning Mental Health Care System, by Jayakanth Srinivasan and Christopher Ivany, reviewed by Martin CM Bricknell, 771–72

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