The Society for Military HistoryThe intellectual home for military historians worldwide

The intellectual home for military historians worldwide

Journal of Military History
Vol. 77, No. 1
January 2013

Articles

Daniel Krebs, “Useful Enemies: The Treatment of German Prisoners of War during the American War of Independence,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 9-39.
During the American War of Independence, the revolutionaries captured thousands of British and German soldiers. Focusing on common German soldiers, this case study explains the various ways in which American revolutionaries turned these prisoners of war into useful enemies for their war effort. To boost morale, revolutionaries staged elaborate rituals with prisoners of war. Congress, the states, and local citizens hired captive soldiers as prisoner-laborers. After the victory at Yorktown in 1781, Congress and the Continental Army recruited German prisoners of war, allowed them to go free after cash payments, and even sold them into indentured servitude to save expenses.
Chandar S. Sundaram, “‘Treated with Scant Attention’: The Imperial Cadet Corps, Indian Nobles, and Anglo-Indian Policy, 1897–1917,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 41-70.
The Imperial Cadet Corps (ICC), was founded in 1901 by the British Raj to give officer training to the princes and gentlemen of India. This article situates the ICC at the intersection of the history of war and society, and colonial Indian history, and contextualizes it within the debate on the Indianization of the Indian Army’s officer corps. Though the ICC failed, and closed in 1917, this article argues that it nevertheless established the precedent for the officer training of Indians in India, which reached full fruition when the Indian Military Academy opened in 1932.
Thomas Hughes, “Learning to Fight: Bill Halsey and the Early American Destroyer Force,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 71-90.
Admiral William Halsey gained both fame and scorn for his direction of fleet forces in World War II. Most historians have attributed his command performance to personality traits; Halsey was aggressive, bold, and impetuous. But his command of naval forces in World War II was as much the product of nearly four decades in uniform as it was any innate trait. From 1914 to 1922, Halsey learned much about naval warfare and fighting from his service with destroyers, which took place largely under the direction of Admiral William Sims, one of the Navy’s greatest reformers.
Jonathan Krause, “The French Battle for Vimy Ridge, Spring 1915,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 91-113.
The unprecedented scale of trench warfare in the First World War posed a series of challenges to attacking forces. This article tracks the early French steps to develop a coherent doctrine for launching offensives against established trench systems, focusing on a specific battle in May-June 1915: Second Artois. This battle would be the first based on lessons learned and digested by the French army after its initial tentative efforts at trench warfare from December 1914 to March 1915. As such it provides an interesting starting point for an analysis of the French army’s development of trench tactics in the First World War and of the part this played in the general effort made by the two sides to find ways to break the post-1914 stalemate on the Western Front.
Jacqueline Woodfork, “‘It Is a Crime To Be a Tirailleur in the Army’: The Impact of Senegalese Civilian Status in the French Colonial Army during the Second World War,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 115-39.
Uniquely among European colonies, some indigenous inhabitants of the French West African colony of Senegal were made citizens of the metropole in the nineteenth century. This originaire status, as it was known, allowed them to, among other things, elect a member of the French parliament in Paris. But, the civil status of the colonial population of Senegal also influenced how its members who served in France’s West African colonial army, the Tirailleurs sénégalais, were fed, clothed, housed, and paid. Using oral and archival sources, this article looks at how this cleavage between citizens and subjects influenced the relationship of Senegalese soldiers to the colonial state, the military, their officers, and each other.
Franco David Macri, “C Force to Hong Kong: The Price of Collective Security in China, 1941,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 141-71.
In November 1941 two Canadian infantry battalions arrived in the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong as reinforcements for the garrison. This deployment is considered an element of Britain’s effort to deter Japanese aggression south against areas more vital, but this paper will demonstrate how other significant geopolitical issues led to this event. Canadian troops were sent to Hong Kong largely because of U.S. influence. Aimed at bolstering Chinese morale, Hong Kong’s reinforcement was meant to sustain the Sino-Japanese war in order to provide indirect support to the Soviet Far East when the Red Army faced destruction in Europe.
Bryan Gibby, “The Best Little Army,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 173-201.
Historians have generally assumed that the poor showing made by the South Korean military in the opening stages of the Korean War was inevitable and have attributed much of the blame for this to the U.S. Army advisory group in Korea, known colloquially as “KMAG.” However, a closer look at the documentary evidence shows that KMAG was keenly aware of the South Korean military’s shortcomings and was doing its best to correct them as war came. Although KMAG’s program to improve the equipment and leadership of the South Korean military and to focus its efforts on conventional defense, as opposed to counterinsurgency activities, proved insufficient to stop the North Korean invasion, U.S. advisors did succeed in forging an infrastructure that allowed the South Korean army to survive and eventually to grow into a potent military force during the war.
S. P. MacKenzie, “Progressives and Reactionaries among British Prisoners of War at Pyoktong and Chongson, North Korea, 1951–1953,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 203-28.
It has often been claimed that British prisoners behaved better than American prisoners during the Korean War (1950–1953). This assertion has tended to be the result of speculative assumption rather than detailed analysis, however, and does not hold up well when examined closely. As a very broad generalization, furthermore, it masks significant variations in the conduct of British prisoners of war themselves. The primary aim of this article is to test various hypotheses to explain why, from the Chinese perspective, the captive British contingent at Chongson (Camp 1) was much more troublesome than its counterpart at Pyoktong (Camp 5).
Gregory A. Daddis, “Eating Soup with a Spoon: The U.S. Army as a “Learning Organization” in the Vietnam War,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 229-54.
Standard Vietnam War narratives often argue that the U.S. Army lost the war because it failed to learn and adapt to the conditions of an unconventional conflict. Based on a reappraisal of learning processes rather than on the outcome of the war, this essay argues that as an organization, the U.S. Army did learn and adapt in Vietnam; however, that learning was not sufficient, in itself, to preserve a South Vietnam in the throes of a powerful nationalist upheaval. A reexamination of the Army’s strategic approach, operational experiences, and organizational changes reveals that significant learning did occur during the Vietnam War despite the conflict’s final result.
Forum:

John J. McLaughlin and Steven Lomazow, “Counterpoint: Albert Coady Wedemeyer,” and Jim Lacey, “Historical Truth and Tilting at Windmills,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 255-72.
Historiographical Essay:

Jasper M. Trautsch, “The Causes of the War of 1812: 200 Years of Debate,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 273-93.
Review Essay:

John H. Gill, “Glimpses Inside Pakistan’s Elusive Army,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 294-98.
Review Essay:

Jerry Lenaburg, “Four Slices of the Iraq War Apple,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 299-303.

Reviews:
Wellington’s Wars: The Making of a Military Genius, by Huw J. Davies, reviewed by Frank Garosi and by Matthew J. Shaw, 305-8

The Generals: American Military Command from World War II to Today, by Thomas E. Ricks, reviewed by Edward M. Coffman and by Roger Spiller, 308-11

Hybrid Warfare: Fighting Complex Opponents from the Ancient World to the Present, edited by Williamson Murray and Peter Mansoor, reviewed by Carter Malkasian, 311-12

The Dao of the Military: Liu An’s Art of War, translated with an introduction by Andrew Seth Meyer, reviewed by David A. Graff, 312-14

Ancient Chinese Warfare, by Ralph D. Sawyer, reviewed by Shu-hui Wu, 314-17

The Complete Roman Legion, by Nigel Pollard and Joanne Berry, reviewed by Rose Mary Sheldon, 317-18

The Armenian Military in the Byzantine Empire: Conflict and Alliance under Justinian and Maurice, by Armen Ayvazyan, reviewed by Everett L. Wheeler, 318-20

Saladin, by Anne-Marie Eddé, translated by Jane Marie Todd, reviewed by Margaret Jubb, 320-21

England and Scotland at War, c. 1296-c. 1513, edited by Andy King and David Simpkin, reviewed by Edward M. Furgol, 321-23

How to Defeat the Saracens, by William of Adam, translated and annotated by Giles Constable, reviewed by Helen J. Nicholson, 323-24

The Military Orders, Vol. 5: Politics and Power, edited by Peter W. Edbury, reviewed by David Stewart Bachrach, 324-26

Reading and War in Fifteenth-Century England: From Lydgate to Malory, by Catherine Nall, reviewed by Zeynep Kocabıyıkoğlu Çeçen, 326-27

The Business of War: Military Enterprise and Military Revolution in Early Modern Europe, by David Parrott, reviewed by William Caferro, 327-29

Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500-1800, edited by Brian L. Davies, reviewed by Brian R. Price, 329-30

War and Politics in the Elizabethan Counties, by Neil Younger, reviewed by Mark Charles Fissel, 331-32

Horses, People and Parliament in the English Civil War: Extracting Resources and Constructing Allegiance, by Gavin Robinson, reviewed by Tom Crawshaw, 332-33

British Naval Captains of the Seven Years’ War: The View from the Quarterdeck, by A. B. McLeod, reviewed by Sam Willis, 333-35

Napoleon and the Revolution, by David P. Jordan, reviewed by Rafe Blaufarb, 335-36

Imperial Crossroads: The Great Powers and the Persian Gulf, edited by Jeffery R. Macris and Saul Kelly, reviewed by Michael A. Palmer, 336-37

Devotion to the Adopted Country: U.S. Immigrant Volunteers in the Mexican War, by Tyler V. Johnson, reviewed by Irving Levinson, 337-39

Scraping the Barrel: The Military Use of Substandard Manpower 1860-1960, edited by Sanders Marble, reviewed by Robert L. Goldich, 339-41

Terrible Swift Sword: The Life of General Philip H. Sheridan, by Joseph Wheelan, reviewed by Robert Wooster, 341-42

War on the Waters: The Union and Confederate Navies, 1861-1865, by James M. McPherson, reviewed by William H. Roberts, 342-43

The Best Station of them All: The Savannah Squadron, 1861-1865, by Maurice Melton, reviewed by Spencer C. Tucker, 344

The Long Road to Antietam: How the Civil War Became a Revolution, by Richard Slotkin, reviewed by Jennifer Murray, 345-46

Lincoln’s Hundred Days: The Emancipation Proclamation and the War for the Union, by Louis P. Masur, reviewed by Burrus Carnahan, 346-47

Remembering The Battle of the Crater: War as Murder, by Kevin M. Levin, reviewed by Mark Ehlers, 348-49

Ruin Nation: Destruction and the American Civil War, by Megan Kate Nelson, reviewed by Paul F. Paskoff, 349-50

Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction, by Jim Downs, reviewed by Paul Renard, 350-51

Reminiscences of Conrad S. Babcock: The Old U.S. Army and the New 1898-1918, edited by Robert H. Ferrell, reviewed by J. Garry Clifford, 352-53

Proconsuls: Delegated Political-Military Leadership from Rome to America Today, by Carnes Lord, reviewed by Gordon W. Rudd, 353-55

The Boxer Rebellion and the Great Game in China, by David J. Silbey, reviewed by Hans van de Ven, 355-56

The Royal Navy and the German Threat 1901-1914: Admiralty Plans to Protect British Trade in a War against Germany, by Matthew S. Seligmann, reviewed by James P. Levy, 357-58

Justifying War: Propaganda, Politics, and the Modern Age, by David Welch and Jo Fox, reviewed by Ralph M. Hitchens, 358-60

Army of the Sky: Russian Military Aviation before the Great War, 1904-1914, by Gregory Vitarbo, reviewed by Michael Paris, 360-61

Float Planes & Flying Boats: The U.S. Coast Guard and Early Naval Aviation, by Robert B. Workman, Jr., reviewed by Stephen K. Stein, 362-63

The Shadow of the Past: Reputation and Military Alliances before the First World War, by Gregory D. Miller, reviewed by Gary P. Cox, 363-64

Winning and Losing on the Western Front: The British Third Army and the Defeat of Germany in 1918, by Jonathan Boff, reviewed by Michael Neiberg, 364-65

The School of Hard Knocks: Combat Leadership in the American Expeditionary Forces, by Richard S. Faulkner, reviewed by Thomas Bruscino, 365-67

Churchill: The Power of Words ― His Remarkable Life Recounted through His Writings and Speeches, selected and edited by Martin Gilbert, reviewed by Raymond Callahan, 367-68

From Axis Victories to the Turn of the Tide: World War II, 1939-1943, by Alan Levine, reviewed by Anthony Adamthwaite, 368-69

The Indian Army, 1939-47: Experience and Development, edited by Alan Jeffreys and Patrick Rose, reviewed by Kaushik Roy, 369-71

Barbarossa Derailed: The Battle for Smolensk, 10 July-10 September 1941. Vol. 2: The German Advance on the Flanks and the Third Soviet Counteroffensive, 25 August-10 September 1941, by David M. Glantz, reviewed by David Stahel, 371-72

The Damned and the Dead: The Eastern Front Through the Eyes of Soviet and Russian Novelists, by Frank Ellis, reviewed by Reina Pennington, 372-75

Surface and Destroy: The Submarine Gun War in the Pacific, by Michael Sturma, reviewed by Joel Ira Holwitt, 376-77

One Marine’s War: A Combat Interpreter’s Quest for Humanity in the Pacific, by Gerald A. Meehl, reviewed by Stanley L. Falk, 377-78

Fatal Crossroads: The Untold Story of the Malmédy Massacre at the Battle of the Bulge, by Danny S. Parker, reviewed by James A. Percoco, 378-79

Making Patton: A Classic War Film’s Journey to the Silver Screen, by Nicholas Evan Sarantakes, reviewed by Frank J. Wetta, 380-81

Niemandsland: A History of Unoccupied Germany 1944-1945, by Gareth Pritchard, reviewed by Stephen G. Fritz, 381-82

The Wild Blue Yonder and Beyond: The 95th Bomb Group in War and Peace, by Rob Morris and Ian Hawkins, reviewed by Christopher D. Holmes, 383-84

Ready Seapower: A History of the U.S. Seventh Fleet, by Edward J. Marolda, reviewed by Roger Dingman, 384-85

On the Edge of the Cold War: American Diplomats and Spies in Postwar Prague, by Igor Lukes, reviewed by Sean N. Kalic, 385-86

History of Acquisition in the Department of Defense. Vol. I: Rearming for the Cold War 1945-1960, by Elliot V. Converse III, reviewed by Byron K. Callan III, 387-88

U.S. Presidents and the Militarization of Space, 1946-1967, by Sean N. Kalic, reviewed by Andrew Baird, 388-90

The Missile Next Door: The Minutemen in the American Heartland, by Gretchen Heefner, reviewed by Kenton Clymer, 390-91

Algeria: France’s Undeclared War, by Martin Evans, reviewed by Wynne Beers, 391-92

The Universe Unraveling: American Foreign Policy in Cold War Laos, by Seth Jacobs, reviewed by Richard A. Ruth, 393-94

Cuban Missile Crisis: The Essential Reference Guide, edited by Priscilla Roberts, reviewed by Michael D. Gambone, 395-96

Land Based Air Power or Aircraft Carriers? A Case Study of the British Debate about Maritime Air Power in the 1960s, by Gjert Lage Dyndal, reviewed by Christina JM Goulter, 396-97

Nationalist in the Viet Nam War: Memoirs of a Victim Turned Soldier, by Nguyen Cong Luan, reviewed by Jay Veith, 398-99

Marigold: The Lost Chance for Peace in Vietnam, by James G. Hershberg, reviewed by Peter Brush, 399-401

Black April: The Fall of South Vietnam 1973-1975, by George J. Veith, reviewed by Roger Soiset, 401-2

Kevlar Legions: The Transformation of the U.S. Army, 1989-2005, by John Sloan, reviewed by Ingo Trauschweizer, 402-4

Film Review:
Cavalry Charge La Haie Sainte, & Plancenoit: The French and Prussian Attacks, DVD directed by Tim Saunders, reviewed by James R. Arnold, 405-7

Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED: 408-12
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 413-15
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 416-20